Author Archives: Seth Hubbell

Database Migration

MalcolmInTheMiddleGif

(Always One More Thing…)

Who Are We?

The Ad Management team here at Bazaarvoice grew out of an incubator team. The goal of our incubator is to quickly iterate on ideas, producing prototypes and “proof of concept” projects to be iterated on if they validate a customer need. The project of interest here generates reports based on aggregations of event data gathered from several other teams at the company. As our project gained traction, it grew in size and scope, eventually leading to the need to revisit some of the design decisions made in the prototyping phase. Specifically, we found the original database system we chose, EmoDB, to not meet our needs as our requirements evolved.

Why Migrate?

When this project was started, it began as a prototype designed to get the project rolling as quickly and easily as possible. The initial team chose EmoDB since they were familiar with the in-house technology from their other projects and it fit our initial needs. As the project gained traction, and we had more data to operate against, we encountered scalability issues, initially resolved with caching and some refactoring. We found that we were querying EmoDB as if it were a typical relational database, when it’s not actually designed for that use case. (Emodb is an eventually consistent json blob store with a change notification databus that spans multiple AWS AZs and Regions. EmoDB powers many of our solutions at Bazaarvoice and is now open-source and available at:
https://github.com/bazaarvoice/emodb

We chose to switch to MySql to leverage the Relational Data Model for rolling up aggregations of data we collect and calculate. We ran into problems previously when we retrieved whole documents to perform aggregations on our data, leading us to decide that a technology that is optimized for relational models would suit the project much better.

How to Migrate?

Since our project already had trained users by the time we wanted to migrate database systems, we needed to design our migration with a no-down-time approach; “seamlessly” changing out the back-end implementation for our users. We also made these transitions configurable, such that we wouldn’t need to make one large switch to master from the new system, but we could choose which services were ready to be cut over to the new data back-end.
The following image is our design document that describes how we planned our migration. On the left is our origin code base named “legacy”. On the right was the proposed design for our new service stack for the migration. Inserted into the middle is the “Service Facade” where we intended to run our quality assurance against live data between the legacy technology stack and our new technology stack.

Copy of ad-management migration to MySql based stack - Page 1

How to Maintain Data Consistency?

Depending on the size of the data that is being diffed and migrated between databases, it can be expensive to run the necessary migrations. Our solution was both writing specific tasks that backfilled data or directly migrating data sets to the new data source. This allowed us to smoke test that our services are working, without expending large amounts of time or money finding bugs along the way. As our confidence grew in our custom tooling and services, we would backfill and migrate larger chunks of data, until we had migrated everything necessary to master from our new service.

What is a Service Facade?

The service facade layer is responsible for executing the respective operations out of the legacy and new stacks. This is where we placed our diffing logic to compare the results returned from Emo and Mysql for the same operation. The facade returns data from the pre-defined configured stack. This meant that certain areas of the application could be sourcing from Mysql, while other areas, that we weren’t confident in, continued to source from Emo. For example, our CampaignRoiReportBuilderServiceFacade written in Scala looked something like this:


class CampaignRoiReportBuilderServiceFacade @Inject()(
private val campaignRoiReportBuilderServiceLegacy:CampaignRoiReportBuilderServiceLegacy,
private val campaignRoiReportService:CampaignRoiReportService,
private val campaignConfig: CampaignConfiguration,
private val facadeDiffTool: FacadeDiffTool) {
...
  def buildReport(...): Future[Option[CampaignRoiReport]] = {
    val roiReportFromEmoDbFuture: Future[Option[CampaignRoiReport]] = campaignRoiReportBuilderServiceLegacy.buildReport(...)
    val roiReportFromMySqlFuture: Future[Option[CampaignRoiReport]] = campaignRoiReportService.buildReport(...)

    // Extract data from scala futures
    for {
      roiReportFromEmoDbMaybe <- roiReportFromEmoDbFuture
      roiReportFromMySqlMaybe <- roiReportFromMySqlFuture } { // Pattern Matching to extract values from scala Option (roiReportFromEmoDbMaybe, roiReportFromMySqlMaybe) match { case (None, None) => //this is an impossible case, but listed to avoid compilation warning
        case (Some(_), None) => LOG.warn("/*Report missing/mismatched data*/")
        case (None, Some(_)) => LOG.warn("/*Report missing/mismatched data*/")
        case (Some(roiReportFromEmo),Some(roiReportFromMySql)) =>
          val mismatches = facadeDiffTool.campaignROIReportLegacyDiff(roiReportFromEmo,roiReportFromMySql)
          if(mismatches.nonEmpty)
            LOG.warn("/*Report missing/mismatched data*/")
      }
    }

//This is how we configure what source we return to the resource.
    campaignConfig.masteringFrom match {
      case EmoDb =>
        roiReportFromMySqlFuture.onFailure{
          case e:Throwable => LOG.warn("Failed to build an ROI report on the MySql side", e)
        }
        roiReportFromEmoDbFuture
      case MySql =>
        roiReportFromEmoDbFuture.onFailure{
          case e:Throwable => LOG.warn("Failed to build an ROI report on the EmoDb side", e)
        }
        roiReportFromMySqlFuture
    }
  }
}

The original resource classes will be modified to call from the new facade layer, but no other functionality should change. If constructed properly, the facade layer will act in the same way as the original service because the facade mimics the public functions available in the original service class. These duplicated functions will call to the methods from the legacy service class as well as the new service. With the responses from both the legacy and new services, the facade layer can make an assessment on the differences between the two service stacks. To report our differences such that we could be notified during API usage, we would log them out to our log management and monitoring system.

How Did We Capture Mismatches?

Logging was a large concern of ours. We knew that there would be many differences per call while we were debugging our new service stack. As an example, on one call, we reported 2000+ differences. We wanted to compose all differences into one log per call in a meaningful way. For this, we wrote custom diff tooling that would return differences in the data as sets of MismatchedField classes.


case class MismatchedField[T](name: String,
                              legacyValue: T,
                              newValue: T)


This templated class will hold the values returned from both the legacy service (legacyValue), and the new stack’s service (newValue), as well as some meaningful tag with which to identify where this mismatch came from (name). We would then compose all mismatches for any given call into a single log through our custom diff tool. Every function within our custom diff tool returns Set[MismatchedField[Any]]. We can then compose each set into a single set of differences such that we can use only one log call to write out the whole set of differences in one log entry.

An Interesting Finding:

One of the most interesting findings we had through this migration weren’t bugs that came in constructing our new service stack for the new database, but that we found bugs in our original database stack. One take-away from this was to make sure to investigate any mismatches found down to the source data. We found during the code migration process that some of our legacy functionality was written incorrectly. As an example, in our legacy code we were storing some aggregated data in sets, unintentionally masking duplicate data. When re-implementing these same aggregations for our new service stack, they were correctly implemented as a list, producing a mismatch in the data. Through our investigation, instead of simply matching the data to how our legacy service worked, we went back to our origin data, and ran the calculations manually through the Scala REPL. In doing so, we found that the new service was correct, where our legacy code was wrong. Fortunately, the bug within our legacy code was a simple fix. We implemented the fix within the legacy code and our mismatch disappeared.

Other Take-aways:

An important team take-away was to be very upfront and declarative about the work that the migration would require. Our investigation into the migration not only involved setting up a new technology stack for MySql, but also changing our build tool from Maven to SBT, introducing a Flyway + Jooq plugin to enforce type safety throughout the migration, designing a new data model (which was ultimately the driving factor for doing the migration in the first place), as well as upgrading our code up to the newest scala version to leverage all of the previous changes. Ultimately, we severely underestimated, and under-ticketed the work necessary to start our migration.

It is also important to keep in mind that every team is different and has different needs. When having conversations about database migrations, take the time to do a proper risk assessment for the work ahead. Keep these conversations going during the migration as well. As a team, we ended up prioritizing new feature requests and non-migration related bugs because the migration felt orthogonal to our production environment.

A further takeaway is that we could have saved ourselves a lot of time if we had more realistically assessed our users. In retrospect, the users of these reports were internal and would have been more lenient with smaller service outages, which would have allowed us to leverage our configurable services to migrate much sooner. At the expense of stability, we believe that we could have had a quicker migration by forcing ourselves to fix problems forward, instead of maintaining our legacy code for as long as we did. Still, most scenarios don’t have this luxury and we hope the façade based approach is of help to you.